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Friday, September 14, 2018

Deep structure and surface structure : Analysis




 One of the most important concepts by Abraham Noam Chomsky is the concept of deep structure and surface structure.  The generativism paradigm Claims that the concept of structural generativism paradigm is too swallow as it only reaches the level of surface structure.  Surface structure can be defined as the syntactic they take as actual sentences.  In other words, it is forms of sentences resulted from modification / transformation.  let's consider this sentence.

     1.       You close the door.
                  2.       The door is closed by you.
3.       Close the door!

 The first sentence is active, second sentence is passive and the last sentence is imperative.

 However, if you take a look those closely, you will find that those three are closely related, even identical.  They seem to be identical, since they have the same underline abstract representation that is called deep structure. It is defined as an abstract level of structural organization in which all the elements determining structural interpretation are represented.  If we want to analyze the relation of those three sentences, the first we have to know about the deep structure since deep structure is the input of transformational rules. We cannot apply transformation rules if we do not have deep structure.  transformation rules are sets of rules which will change or move constituents in the structures derived from the phrase structure rules. For example,

Deep structure and surface structure : Analysis

SD ( Structure description ) : 1 2 3 4
        SC ( Structural change) : 3 4+ be 2+ en 1
                           SS ( Surface Structure ) : The door is closed by you.


Note: the SC is passive transformation rules.

 SD : 1 2 3 4 
SC: 0 2 3 4
                SS : Close the door !

* 0 is deletion


From the above example,  it can be concluded that deep structure then is a pure representation of thematic relations.  anything which is interpreted as the subject or object of given predicate will be in the subject or object position of that predicate at deep structure no matter where it is found at surface structure.

 This is to say, according to the transformational generative grammar or TG grammar, each sentence is considered to possess two levels of structure: The deep structure in the speaker’s, writer’s or Reader's mind, and the office structure which a person speaks, hears or writes.  That is, the fastest tractor is the output of the transformational rules and the input to the phonological component.  To illustrate from the same deep structure, we could have the following surface structure:

            Rakesh is easy to please.
          Pleasing Rakesh is easy.
 it is easy to please.

  Thus, after the application of transformational rules to the basic syntactic structure, we get the derived phrase maker which represents the surface structure.  And, phonetic realization of the this is derived the   surface structure.


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